Month: October 2013
As we all know, history is full of events, which leaded each other by the world history goes on telling itself. Many cultures disappeared, some of them got greater and greater, and some other had unbalanced dynamism while surviving in history. But in this period, surely, there has been “something” which has never changed: Interaction issue.
Interaction is a word which has many different kinds as examples. And we can clearly see those examples if wee look especially to the middle periods. Many balances changing in world in many fields as economy, art, tradition, technology and such, which are able to effect or change the cultural identifications of current civilizations. But not to miss, I think we all can agree on a really basic 2 words: “art and culture”, the most effected and transformed issues through those interactions. And when we talk about art and culture, especially about art, we are able to observe and give direct references for them, to the field of architecture.
Now, I want to put emphasis on Venice, and İstanbul culture in given period focusing on 1100-1500, and the interactions happened commercially, economically and politically between these two countries. Ss I see, there are interesting and serious resarches, analysing examples and comparing contrasting texts on these two cultures. In all those referemces I got, there’s a really interesting one which is named as “Church and Mosque: Religious Arcitecture in Venice and Istanbul”, and exhibitions made in Istanbul with the name “Venice and Istanbul during Ottoman Empire”. As a common point, they both are expressing come facts on 400 year old richness between these countries as sibling cities, which are leading us back to the 15th century. And as a more sharp comparison, the first film, gives direct comparison and contrast on Andrea Palladio’s Redentore Church in Venice, and Mimar Sİnan’s Sokollu Mehmet Pasha Mosque in Istanbul. It also gives references from Deborah Howard’s Venice and East: The Impact of the Islamic World on Venecian Architecture 1100-1500, about these two architects who areboh applied architectural traditions changed and innovated by these interactions.
As firs observations and researches, here the introduction for you. Thanks for reading, Seçil.
The gallery of statics and structure lesson 2nd assignment: “Glass Package Design (6p)” is given below.
A report-essay on Protestantism, Martin Luther and Reformation to discuss, in reference to the movie “LUTHER” (2003).
16th century was a time period which effected many issues going on. Then by the time passed, the “change” strengthened itself by using press for public purposes too, and as a conclusion this led the increase of knowledge in many fields. Because of living in a religion based age, church became one of the most effected issues of this period of change, which is specially named as “reform”.
In detail, seen in the movie “Luther” too, that period was the one which had tiny little chances of asking questions in relation to religion. Now, I want to step up to the point which tells more about how this situation transformed itself and how it effected the Christian world and thought.
At the beginning of these ages, church was the most dominant power in every field of daily life by inevitable help of scholastic thought. The people were acting like they are slaves of the church, which have to obey the most important doctrine of the Christianity: “Human was born and worked for mercy of God and church to excuse his sins.”. By having this doctrine in hand, church began to put the pressure of dominancy on people and the “pointless Christianity” began to rule more. The people of church were look like they are charmed by greatness of the church and Christian world. At this point I want to put more emphasis on “Martin Luther” to get in detail.
Martin Luther (1483-1546) is the person who changed the “Christian thought” for a huge population. He found Protestantism and Lutheran philosophies, and the thoughts of him enlightened the “darkness” of exaggerated Christian dominancy. He began to his education at Ertfurt University then after deciding to be a priest because of an accident caused by a thunderbolt which made him to believe in God, he began his theology education and in same year he got the statue of being a priest. Next year he took the doctor degree for theology from Wittenberg University. Although he was strictly educated to teach and tell the greatness of Christianity and God, he never gave up asking questions. Then when he realized the tripe of church dominance by observing the money based “pureness” of human being, remissioning and indulgence used by church to gain money and reputation, he gave up that belief and Protestantism began to built itself and rebuilt some issues in Christianity. The other religion men, church, authorities and many more accused him for telling lies and harshing the “real” authority of Christian world but although having these negative manner by them all, national kingdoms understood and supported his thoughts of Christianity. By their help he has been saved from death and also he had the chance of translating Bible to German, although having so much difficulties by language differentiation and the reform in Christianity began by help of having understandable and readable hard copies for people. Then when people stop “listening” and “learning” from priests, they began to read and learn their religion from the original resource which changed everything and harshed the exaggerated church authority.
As a conclusion, the existence of Bible in German and the Protestantism make people know their religion from first hand which made them not to believe in liars and money expecting authorities. The people began to learn by having direct communication with Bible and other translated or written books of Luther. Inevitably, the chance of having more copies in hand made everything easier to improve which was directly an opportunity of having press technology, also which lead the enlightenment in Christianity and reform.
“LUTHER” the movie (2003)